In today's research rich world, technological advances are made daily. New diagnostic tools render industry standards obsolete every few years. Major pharmaceutical companies devote millions of dollars and talent to the development of medications that treat life threatening illness. As such, it is unsurprising that there is a growing need for highly intelligent and caring individuals in the areas of clinical medicine and pharmacy.
Modern medicine delves deeper into human physiology by searching out the root cause of illness. Research and state of the art tools examine illness at a genetic level. Medications no longer target the reception of pain but home in on the exact genes that cause ailments by means of suppression. Complicated systems such as the human heart can now be replaced by technology ranging from valves from another animal to a fully functional synthetic heart.
This data driven movement has placed health into the highly trained hands of equally attentive scientists who work to stay abreast of the latest medical breakthroughs. Unfortunately, clinicians have neither the means nor the time to conduct independent research at such a highly specialized level therefore it is no surprise that doctors and pharmacists who are able to incorporate these lifesaving advances obtain their training from institutions which have devoted themselves and their resources to providing medical education and research at the highest level.
There exist several such schools across the world with extraordinary resources and an even greater commitment to clinical medicine and pharmacy. As medical practice becomes more specialized this level of dedication and growth from schools grows ever more important. While some clinicians are involved in deepening our understanding of genetics and immunology, others build new compounds that treat illnesses once thought to be terminal, and still others prolong life through new surgical procedures.
For this ranking, we looked to the Center for World-Class Universities operated by Shanghai Jiao Tong University (right). This center specializes in ranking universities as well as their individual programs of study. International in scope and focused on academic performance, these are known as the "Shanghai Rankings."
From the Shanghai Rankings, we therefore identified the 50 best programs in the latest 2015 Academic Ranking of World Universities in Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy. Taking this Shanghai Ranking as our point of departure, we researched the most important characteristics of each of the top 50 medical and pharmacy programs on the list in order to reveal why each university medicine and pharmacy program appears where it does.
The Top 50 Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy Schools
Founded in 1782, Harvard Medical School has over 700 MD students and nearly 800 PhD students enrolled within 10 departments including Genetics, Neurobiology, and Biomedical Informatics. There have been a total of 15 Nobel Prize recipients in Medicine and Physiology. Faculty members and alumni have been recognized for the development of procedures for organ and cell transplantation in humans, the discovery of odorant receptors, and the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase.
Affiliated Hospitals and Research Institutions include Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Cambridge Health Alliance, Judge Baker Children's Center, McLean Hospital, and the Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital.
Other divisions and institutes associated with the medical school include: the Center for Primary Care, the Division of Nutrition, the Stem Cell Institute, the Center for Bioethics, the Division of Sleep Medicine, and the Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering.
- See Harvard's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Harvard's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
(San Francisco, California)
The School of Medicine at the University of California in San Francisco was founded in 1864. There are over 600 MD students and 700 PhD/MS students enrolled within a total of 28 departments such as Emergency Medicine, Pathology, Radiation Oncology, and Surgery. Four Nobel Laureates have been associated with the school.
There are eight research units including the Center for Reproductive Sciences, the Diabetes Center, the Institute for Human Genetics, and the Phillip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies. There are also five interdisciplinary research centers: the AIDS Research Institute, the Center for Health and Community, the Center for Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, the Center for Integrative Medicine, and the Asthma Center.
Affiliated Hospitals and Training sites include the UCSF Medical Center, the Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, the Benioff Children's Hospital, the San Francisco VA Medical Center, the Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, and the Fresno Medical Education Program.
The University of Washington's School of Medicine has been recognized for its excellence in training primary-care physicians. Founded in 1946, there are now approximately 4,500 students and trainees enrolled in over 50 departments and programs including Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Global Health, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Pediatrics, and Rehabilitation Medicine. The five affiliated medical schools cover Dentistry, Nursing, Pharmacy, Public Health, and Social Work.
There are three primary sites for research facilities: on campus in the Health Sciences Building, at the Harborview Medical Center, and at the South Lake Union site. Collaborative research centers and programs include the Cystic Fibrosis Center, the Institute for Prostate Cancer Research, the Palliative Care Center of Excellence, and the Tumor Vaccine Group.
Johns Hopkins University established its School of Medicine in 1893. Some achievements accredited to the school include the development of renal dialysis, the development of CPR, the discovery of the first effective treatments for severe forms of sickle cell disease, the development of the first biological pacemaker for the heart, and the planning and performance of one of the most challenging double arm transplants to date. A total of 16 Nobel Laureates are associated with the School of Medicine.
The school operates six academic and community hospitals, four suburban health care and surgery centers, and 39 primary and specialty care outpatient sites. Affiliated teaching and research hospitals include the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center in Baltimore, the Suburban Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, the Howard County General Hospital, and the Sibley Memorial Hospital in Washington.
Research institutes include the Brain Science Institute, the Institute for Cell Engineering, the Institute for Genetic Medicine, and the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research.
The Stanford University School of Medicine maintains three major divisions: The Stanford School of Medicine, the Healthcare Center, and the Children's Health Center. Established in 1908, there are now nearly 400 MD students and 800 PhD students enrolled. A total of eight Nobel Prize recipients are associated with the school.
Some of the many notable achievements associated with the School of Medicine include the first adult human heart transplant in the US, the discovery of the brain chemical Dynorphin, the discovery of the hormone obestatin, and the discovery of the first human bladder cancer stem cell.
There are five research institutes: the Child Health Research institute, the Cancer institute, the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, the Cardiovascular Institute, and the Institute for Immunity, Transplantation, and Infection. There are also over 60 research centers including: the Center for Psychiatry and the Law, the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research Center, the Center for Memory Disorders, the Down Syndrome Research Center, and the Center for Biomedical Ethics.
- See Stanford's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Stanford's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
(Cambridge, United Kingdom)
The University of Cambridge manages the School of Clinical Medicine which can trace its history back to 1540. The school is organized into four major academic institutes: the MRC Institute of Metabolic Sciences, the Institute for Medical Research, the Institute of Public Health, and the Cancer Research Institute.
There are 14 general departments including Hematology, Psychiatry, Radiology, and Surgery. Some strong research themes taken on by the faculty and staff members include Cardio-Vascular Medicine, Genetics and Genetic Medicine, Infection and Immunity, and Women's Health.
- See Cambridge's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Cambridge's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
(New York, New York)
The Medical Center at Columbia University has five major academic divisions: The College of Physicians and Surgeons, the College of Dental Medicine, the Mailman School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, and the Graduate School. The 25 departments include subjects such as Neurological Surgery, Otolaryngology, Pharmacology, and Systems Biology.
Major teaching hospital affiliates are maintained with New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Academic affiliations exist with Bassett Healthcare, the Isabella Geriatric Center, and Arnot Ogden Medical Center.
There are over 40 state-of-the-art interdisciplinary research facilities including: the Biomarkers Core Lab, the Comparative Pathology Lab, the Irving Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Columbia Center for Translational Immunology, the Diabetes Research Center, and the Institute of Comparative Medicine.
- See Columbia's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Columbia's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
(London, United Kingdom)
The Medical School at the University College London was established with the joining of the Middlesex Hospital, the University College Hospital, and the Royal Free Hospital. The current Medical School has been offering classes since 1834, though Middlesex Hospital was established earlier in 1764.
Other teaching hospitals associated with the Medical School include the Eastman Dental Hospital, the Great Ormond Street Hospital, the Moorfields Eye Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, the Royal National Throat, Nose, and Ear Hospital, and the Royal National Orthopedic Hospital.
On campus research institutes include the Cancer Institute, the Ear Institute, the Institute of Child Health, the Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, and the Institute for Biomedical Research. Strong research relationships are also maintained with the Center for Health Informatics and Multi-professional Education, the Eastman Dental Institute, and the Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health.
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center has seen six Nobel Laureates. Some of their achievements include the discovery of the basic mechanism of cholesterol metabolism, the use of x-ray crystallography to describe the structure of protein involved in photosynthesis, and the discovery of G proteins. The Medical Center has also been credited with pioneering work on synaptic transmission.
Departments are organized into Basic Sciences such as Biochemistry, Immunology, and Pharmacology or the Clinical Departments such as Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Pathology, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry. There are Nearly 1,000 MD students and over 1,000 PhD students enrolled in the various programs.
Research centers include: the Center for Alzheimer's and Neurodegenerative Diseases, the Center for the Genetics of Host Defense, the Cecil H. and Ida Green Comprehensive Center for Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology, the Charles and Jan Pak Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, and the McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development.
(Los Angeles, California)
The Medical Center at the University of California in Los Angeles was founded in 1955 and was renamed the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center in 2008. In addition to the Medical Center, the facility also includes the Stewart and Lynda Resnick Neuropsychiatric Hospital and the Mattel Children's Hospital.
There are five major academic centers including the David Geffen School of Medicine, the School of Dentistry, the School of Nursing, the Fielding School of Public Health, and the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior. The School of Medicine has over 20 departments organized into Basic and Clinical Sciences including Biomathematics, Family Medicine, Radiation Oncology, and Urology.
Research facilities, including laboratories, Institutes, and Centers, consist of the Atherosclerosis Research Unit, the Cardiovascular Research Lab, the Human Gene Therapy for Cancer Center, the Ronald S. Hirshberg Translational Pancreatic Cancer Research Laboratory, and the Integrated Substance Abuse Programs.
- See UCLA's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See UCLA's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
(New Haven, Connecticut)
Founded in 1810, the Yale School of Medicine offers seven medical programs. In addition to the traditional MD, students may also enroll in the MD/PhD, the MD and Public Health, the MD and Health Sciences, the MD and Law, the MD and Management, or the MD and Divinity.
Achievements associated with the Yale School of Medicine include the first demonstration of molecular basis of remissions, the identification of a molecular basis for pain after nerve injury, and the first research on transplantation of myelin-forming cells into the injured spinal cord.
Some affiliated institutions include the Yale-New Haven Hospital, the Connecticut Mental Health Center, the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, and the John B. Pierce Laboratory.
Research institutes include: the Animal Resources Center, the Childhood Violent Trauma Center, the Epilepsy Center, Global Health Education, the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, the Center for Prenatal, Pediatric, and Environmental Epidemiology, and the Stem Cell Center.
- See Yale's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Yale's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
Located in Solna, Sweden, the Karolinska Institute was founded in 1810, making it the third oldest medical school in the country. The school is well known for the Nobel Assembly which, since 1901, has selected the Nobel Laureates in Physiology and Medicine.
Some of the Noble Laureates associated with the Karolinska Institute have been recognized for contributions to the analysis of retinal function, how optical nerve cells respond to light stimuli/color and frequency, discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in nerve terminal, and discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.
The Institute maintains academic relationships with three National Research Centers, 11 Centers established by targeted external funding, and 20 Centers within the Institution itself. Some of those collaborative research centers include the Aging Research Center, the Center for Healthcare Ethics, the Center for Research on Healthcare in Disasters, the Center of Disaster Toxicology, and the Radiation Emergency Medicine Center.
(Chapel Hill, North Carolina)
The Medical School at the University of North Carolina was established in 1879. The school is comprised of nine basic science departments and 20 clinical departments. Areas of study include Dermatology, Orthopedics, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and Radiation Oncology. The two Nobel Laureates associated with the school include Dr. Oliver Smithies who introduced starch as a medium for gel electrophoresis, and Dr. Aziz Sancar who was recognized for his studies of DNA repair.
There are over 30 research centers available including the Institute for Developmental Disabilities, the Center for Health Equity Research, the Ear and Hearing Center, the McAllister heart Institute, and the Thurston Arthritis Research Center.
There are over 15 other affiliate centers as well including the Advanced Practice Provider Center, the Center for Health Statistics Research, the Dental Research Center, and the Center for the Utilization of CO2 in Manufacturing. Ongoing programs include: Domestic Violence Intervention, the Integrative Program for Biological and Genome Sciences, and the Laboratories for Sickle Cell Program.
The University of Pittsburgh is organized into 16 schools, one of which is the School of Medicine. The school was originally chartered in 1886 as the Western Pennsylvania Medical College. Today the school is comprised of 29 departments including: Cell Biology, Critical Care Medicine, Immunology, and Neurology.
In addition to MD and PhD programs the School of Medicine offers Physician Scientist training, Clinical Scientist Training, Multidisciplinary MPH programs, and the Medicine Bioethics Joint Degree.
There are over 80 affiliated research centers including the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Other centers and institutes include the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, the Brain and Spine Injury Center, the Center for Pathology Informatics, the Digestive Disorders Center, the Institute for Doctor-Patient Communication, the Nutrition and Obesity Research Center, the Stroke Institute, and the Vascular Medicine Institute.
(Oxford, United Kingdom)
At the University of Oxford, the Medical Sciences Division is the largest of the four academic divisions spanning three sites across the University. The Medical Sciences are organized into 16 departments in addition to numerous units, institutes, and centers. Some example departments include Psychology, Pharmacology, and Obstetrics.
Other facilities and divisions include the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, the Institute of Molecular Medicine, the Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, and the Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology.
There are five Nobel Laureates in Medicine associated with the division. Nikolaas Tinbergen was honored for discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns. Rodney R. Porter was recognized for discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies. Sir Howard W. Florey and Ernst B. Chain were honored for the discovery of penicillin. Finally, Sir Charles S. Sherrington was recognized for his work with the functions of neurons.
- See Oxford's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Oxford's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
The Mayo Clinic has been established for over 150 years and is regarded by many as one of the top medical facilities in the world. In the 2014-2015 rankings by the U.S. News & World Report for Best Hospitals, Mayo Clinic was ranked as number one.
The Mayo Medical School, however, was not opened until 1972. It is one of five schools within the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine. Highly selective, the school enrolls only 50 medical students per year. Programs at the school include Physical Therapy, Dentistry, Physician Assistant, and Postgraduate residency and Fellowship training programs, in addition to a Medical Scientist Training Program and an Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery residency program.
Affiliated hospitals include Saint Mary's Hospital and Rochester Methodist Hospital.
(Ann Arbor, Michigan)
The Medical School at the University of Michigan was founded in 1850. There are two alumni of the school who have been awarded Nobel Prizes, Marshall Nirenberg for work on the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis, and Stanley Cohen for his work towards understanding the mechanisms which regulate cell and organ growth.
The Medical School has nine basic science departments and 20 clinical departments. There are a total of 37 interdisciplinary centers and institutes including the Addiction Research Center, the Clinical Simulation Center, the Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, the Gastrointestinal Peptide Research Center, the Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, and the Sleep Disorders Center.
Other affiliated institutes and neighboring facilities include the University Hospital, the Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Samuel and Jean Frankel Cardiovascular Center, the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, and the Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital.
- See Michigan's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Michigan's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
Penn Medicine was founded in 1765 and has grown to include 10 basic science departments and 18 clinical departments. Departmental Centers include: the Center for Brain Injury and Repair, the Center for the Treatment and Prevention of Suicide, the Mood Disorders Treatment Center, and the Smell and Taste Center. There are nearly 800 medical students and over 180 MD/PhD students enrolled.
Independent interdisciplinary centers and institutes of research include the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, the Institute for Environmental Medicine, the Genome Frontiers Institute, and the Penn Medicine Transplant Institute.
Some of the hospitals affiliated with Penn Medicine include the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, the Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, the Pennsylvania Hospital, the Chester County Hospital, and the Lancaster General Hospital.
- See University of Pennsylvania's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See University of Pennsylvania's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
Established in 1875, the School of Medicine at Vanderbilt University claims two Nobel Laureates. Earl W. Sutherland Jr. was recognized in 1971 for his discovery of the metabolic regulating compound cyclic AMP, and Stanley Cohen was honored in 1986 for his co-discovery of the epidermal growth factor.
The School has 26 educational departments and 23 centers for research. Some of the centers include the Center for Structural Biology, the Institute of Imaging Sciences, the Vanderbilt Eye Institute, and the Vanderbilt Vaccine Center. There are an additional 23 interdisciplinary centers including: the Center for Bone Biology, the Cognitive Robotics Laboratory, the Lamb Center for Pediatric Research, the Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, and the Vanderbilt Digestive Disease Research Center.
The University also manages the Institute for Imaging Science and BioVU. This Institute runs a genetic database which holds the world's largest collection of adult and pediatric DNA samples.
(San Diego, California)
The University of California in San Diego manages an impressive Health Sciences network which encompasses the School of Medicine, the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, and the UC San Diego Health System. The Health System is further organized into the UC San Diego Medical Center, the Thornton Hospital, the Moores Cancer Center, the Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center, and more.
The School of Medicine itself was founded in 1968. There are 16 academic departments and a faculty of over 1,400 physicians and scientists. The numerous affiliated research centers and institutes include the Clinical and Translational Research Institute, the Center for Healthy Aging, the Center for Drug Discovery Innovation, and the Institute for Genomic Medicine.
Other centers include the Anti-Viral Research Center, the Autism Center of Excellence and Healthy Infant Development Laboratory, and the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program.
- See UC-San Diego's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See UC-San Diego's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
The M. D. Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas is a free-standing institution within the University system which is able to grant degrees. The center hosts one of the largest cancer prevention programs in the United States with over 1,600 full-time faculty members employed.
There are seven main schools and programs at the center: the School of Health Professionals, the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the Graduate Medical Education program, the Clinical Education for Non-Physicians program, Research Training, Summer Science Programs, and Nursing Education.
There are six research institutes and 25 research centers including the McCombs Institute for early Detection and Treatment of Cancer, the Institute for Applied Cancer Science, the Center for Cancer Epigenetics, the Center for Molecular Markers, and the Center for Biological Pathways. Research programs include the Brain Tumor Research Program, the Integrative Medicine Program, and the Nutrition Research Group. The center also maintains academic collaborations with 30 sister institutions in 23 countries.
There are two campuses at the University of Minnesota dedicated to the Medical School facilities. The school is comprised of 27 departments and 17 centers and institutes. Some examples include the Center for Immunology, the Center for American Indian and Minority Health, the Developmental Biology Center, and the Stem Cell Institute. There are also two affiliated centers, the Clinical and Translational Science Institute and the Masonic Cancer Center.
Since its founding in 1888, the Medical School has grown to nearly 1,000 MD and MD/PhD students. Approximately 70 percent of Minnesota's physicians attend the University's Medical School. There is a special emphasis on rural medicine, specifically on the Duluth campus.
Associated facilities include the University of Minnesota Medical Center, the Amplatz Children's Hospital, the Veterans Administration Medical Center, the Hennepin County Medical Center, the Variety Club Heart and Research Center, the Masonic Cancer Center, and the Veterans of Foreign Wars Cancer Research Center.
- See Minnesota's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Minnesota's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
(London, United Kingdom)
The Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine is organized into four main faculties, that of science, engineering, medicine, and business. The Faculty of Medicine was created in 1997. There are three Nobel Laureates associated with the Faculty. First, Sir Alexander Fleming was recognized in 1923 for discovering the enzyme lysozyme and the antibiotic benzyl-penicillin, second, Sir Ernst Boris Chain was honored for his work on penicillin, and finally, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of vitamins.
Teaching and research partnerships are maintained with a number of facilities including the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, the North West Thames Foundation School, and with Saint Mary's Hospital. Imperial College is well known for its research on Parkinson's disease and Multiple Sclerosis. Imperial also is home to the largest brain bank in the world with over 290 brains donated by persons diagnosed with either Parkinson's or MS.
- See Imperial College's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Imperial College's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
(Durham, North Carolina)
Duke Health, established in 1930, consists of the University School of Medicine, the Duke University School of Nursing, and the University Health System. The network of health services includes the University Hospital, Duke Regional Hospital, Duke Primary Care, Duke Home and Hospice, Duke Health and Wellness, and many other facilities. There are a total of 98 clinical, research, and educational buildings within the medical campus.
The academic facilities include a total of 22 clinical and basic science departments. Students enrolled include 450 MD's, nearly 1000 residents and fellows, and 640 PhD's. The faculty and alumni include two Nobel Laureates: Robert J. Lefkowitz, MD, who was recognized for his work with G protein-coupled receptors, and Paul Modrich, PhD, who was recognized for his work with DNA mismatch repair.
Research centers and institutes include: the Human Vaccine Institute, the Institute for Brain Sciences, the Center for Human Disease Modeling, and the Duke Cancer Institute.
(New York, New York)
The Weill Cornell Medical facilities, founded in 1898, consist of the Weill Cornell Medical College and the Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences. The Medical school has had a long standing affiliation with the New York-Presbyterian Hospital since 1927. Other affiliations include the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, the Rockefeller University, the Hospital for Special Surgery, and the numerous institutions that constitute the New York-Presbyterian Healthcare Network.
The academic facilities are comprised of 24 basic science and patient care departments such as Cell and Developmental Biology, Reproductive Medicine, and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.
Additionally, there are 14 major centers and institutes for research. These include the Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, the Institute for Disease and Disaster Preparedness, the Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry, the Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, and the Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology.
- See Cornell's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Cornell's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
The University of Wisconsin had the vision for a medical school in 1848 and by 1908 a total of eight students graduated from what would become the Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health. Today there are four major educational sites, the Health Sciences Learning Center, the Medical Science Center, the Clinical Science Center, and the Wisconsin Institute for Medical Research.
The 12 academic divisions are organized into 17 clinical science departments and 10 basic and applied science departments. Affiliated Medical Centers and Hospitals include: the Aurora BayCare Medical Center, the Marshfield Clinic, the Meriter Hospital, St. Mary's Hospital, the Gunderson Health System, and the Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital.
There are a total of 24 research centers and institutes including: the Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, the Collaborative Center for Health Equity, the Health-Emotions Research Institute, the Skin Disease Research Center, and the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center.
- See Wisconsin's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Wisconsin's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
At Berkeley, the School of Public Health was established in 1943. There are 13 programs of study offered such as Community Health and Human Development, Health and Social Behavior, and Infectious Disease and Vaccinology. The school has maintained five specialty areas in Aging, Global Health, Maternal and Child Health, Multicultural Health, and Public Health Nutrition.
Research initiatives include 35 Centers and Programs. Some examples include the Arsenic Health Effects Research Program, the Center for Health Technology, the Center on Developing Adolescents, the Center for Exposure Biology, the Safe Transportation Research and Education Center, and the Center on the Economics and Demography of Aging.
The University of California manages a separate School of Optometry which offers an intensive four-year clinical training program. The Meredith W. Morgan Eye Center performs research and helps diagnose and treat over 80,000 patients every year.
- See UC-Berkeley's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See UC-Berkeley's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
(Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
The Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto, founded in 1843, is known as one of Canada's oldest institutions of medical studies. The core of the Faculty of Medicine is the University Health Network, which itself consists of three specialized hospitals: Toronto General Hospital, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, and Toronto Western Hospital. Faculty and alumni have been recognized for the discovery of insulin and stem cells.
The Faculty of Medicine manages 26 departments including Speech and Language Pathology, Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, and Family and Community Medicine. A health network that comprises twelve teaching hospitals is also under the jurisdiction of the Faculty. Together the hospitals are known for putting a strong emphasis on tertiary care.
The 19 research centers include the Center for Ambulatory Care Education, the Global Institute for Psychosocial, Palliative, and End-of-Life Care, the Center for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety, and the Tanz Center for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
- See Toronto's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Toronto's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
Northwestern Medicine is the premier academic medical center which is comprised of the Northwestern Memorial Hospital, the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, and the Northwestern Medical Group. Founded in 1859, the School of Medicine today has over 600 MD students and 1135 residents and fellows. Robert Furchgott, the one affiliated Nobel Laureate with the School of Medicine, was honored for his discovery of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor.
There are four major elements in the curriculum: Clinical Medicine, Science in Medicine, Health and Society, and Professional Development. The nine affiliated hospitals include the Northwestern Medicine Lake Forest Hospital, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, and Jesse Brown VA Medical Center.
Research Institutes and Centers include the Institute for Bionanotechnology in Medicine, the Women's Health Research Institute, the Center for Patient-Centered Outcomes, the Interdepartmental Immuno-biology Center, and the Cancer Survivorship Institute.
- See Northwestern's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Northwestern's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
The Medical School at Boston University had 25 departments in basic and clinical sciences with over 650 MD students and 950 Master's and Doctorate students enrolled. The three clinical sites on campus are the Boston Medical Center, the Boston Healthcare for the Homeless, and the Solomon Carter Fuller Mental Health Center.
There are 12 core research facilities and 14 Centers of Excellence including the Biomedical Imaging Center, the BUSM Thermo Fisher Supply Center, the Flow Cytometry Core, the Metabolic Phenotyping Core, and the Experimental Pathology Laboratory
A total of 20 research centers and institutes are available and include the Amyloid Treatment and Research Center, the Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Center, the Genome Science Institute, the Pulmonary Center, and the Women's Health Interdisciplinary Research Center
Additionally there are 26 affiliated hospitals and 13 affiliated community health centers such as the Veteran Affairs Boston Healthcare System, the Roger Williams Medical Center, the Mount Auburn Hospital, and the Steward Health Care Center.
The Leiden Medical Center, located in Leiden, Netherlands, came from the merger of the Academisch Ziekenhuis Leiden (Leiden Academic Hospital) and the medical faculty of Leiden University in the late 1990s. The academic departments in the Medical Center include Anatomy and Embryology, Dietetics, Physiotherapy, Nephrology, and Thrombosis and Hemostasis.
The renown of the Medical center's programs can be attributed in part to the numerous academic and industrial alliances maintained by the facility. Some academic partnerships include the Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, the Holland Particle Therapy Centre, the Parelsnoer Institute, the Centre for Medical Systems Biology, and the League of European Research Universities. Industry Alliances are maintained with the Netherlands Center for Electron Nanoscopy, the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, and the Center for Translational Molecular Medicine.
The University of Melbourne's medical school was the first of its kind in Australia to open up the possibility of educating medical professionals. Today the 22 academic departments are organized under the jurisdiction of the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, and Health Sciences. The current staff members include Nobel Laureate, Professor Peter Doherty, who was recognized for his work with the immune system and virus-infected cells. There are also two alumni who were awarded the Nobel Prize, Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet in 1960 and Sir John Eccles in 1963.
The major research focus areas for the Faculty include cancer, the cardiovascular system, diabetes/obesity and endocrinology, infection and immunity, and the neurosciences. The teaching and research health network includes Austin Hospital, Royal Melbourne Hospital, and Saint Vincent's Hospital.
Established in 1854 as the Atlanta Medical College, Emory University School of Medicine was rededicated in 1915 with its new name and a vision of progress for the future. Today the School includes eight basic science departments, 20 clinical science departments, and four major research centers: the Atlanta Clinical and Translational Science Institute, the Emory Vaccine Center, the McKelvey Center, and the Transplant Center.
The programs offered at the medical school include a joint MD/MSCR (master's in clinical research) degree, an MD/MPH degree with public health, and an MD/MA in bioethics with Emory's Laney Graduate School.
Affiliated teaching hospitals include Grady Memorial, Emory University Hospital, Egleston Children's Hospital, Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and the Wesley Woods Geriatric Hospital.
Research facilities include the Marcus Autism Center, the Emory Pediatric building, the Winship Cancer Institute, and the Whitehead Biomedical Memorial building. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is located adjacent to the medical campus and maintains national affiliation with the school.
One of the largest and most prestigious institutes for higher education in Switzerland, the University of Zurich hosts seven faculties: Philosophy, Human Medicine, Economic Sciences, Law, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Theology, and Veterinary Medicine.
The school for Human Medicine is associated with two Nobel Laureates. First, Walter Rudolf Hess was recognized in 1949 for his work in mapping areas of the brain which control internal organs; and second, Rolf Martin Zinkernagel was honored in 1996 for his discoveries of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells.
Dedicated long-term medical research is being performed in a number of areas including Translational Cancer Research, Integrative Human Physiology, Systems Biology/Functional Genomics, and the Dynamics of Healthy Aging.
Centers for research include the Center for Ethics, the Center for Gerontology, the Zurich Center for Interdisciplinary Sleep Research, the International Normal Aging and Plasticity Imaging Center, and the Competence Center for Personalized Medicine.
Though the University of Chicago was founded in 1890, it took an additional eight years for the school to bring the study of medicine into its curriculum. Finally in 1927, the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine was established as its own entity. Since then, a total of 12 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine have been associated with the school.
Some of the numerous achievements attributed to faculty and alumni include: Dr. Oswald Robertson and the discovery of blood preservation, the establishment of the first blood bank during WWI, Eugene Goldwasser and the explanation of the basic principles behind erythropoietin, Dr. Janet Rowley in 1972 discovered the first consistent chromosome translocations associated with cancer, and finally Dr. Franklin McLean was the first to measure blood glucose levels.
Medical facilities include the University of Chicago Medicine, the Comer Children's Hospital, the Center for Care and Discovery, the Center for Advanced Medicine, and the Center for Biomedical Discovery.
- See University of Chicago's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See University of Chicago's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
(Salt Lake City, Utah)
The Medical School at the University of Utah was established in 1905 as part of the Health Science Division. Other facilities include the College of Health, the College of Nursing, the College of Pharmacy, the Huntsman Cancer Institute, and the Moran Eye Center. The school is associated with Nobel Laureate Mario Capecchi who was recognized for his work in gene targeting.
The two-year Medical School includes 23 academic departments and 20 programs and centers. Some of the research facilities include the Biomedical Engineering Centers, the Clinical Neurosciences Center, the Institute of Human Genetics, the Center for Global Surgery, the Center for High Performance Computing, the Personalized Healthcare Program, and the Center for Advanced Imaging Research.
Some of the affiliated Research Centers include the Laboratory for Western Leisure Research, the Center for Radiological Health, the Micro Instrumentation Laboratory, and the Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences.
(London, United Kingdom)
At King's College London, the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine manages both the School of Bioscience Education and the School of Medical Education. The study of medicine has been available at King's College since its founding in 1836. There are 18 academic divisions and a total of 60 programs of study at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
The major research facilities associated with the school include the Biological service unit, the Center for Ultrastructural Imaging, the Drug Control Center, the Imaging Scanning Facility, and the MRI Scanner.
The four main teaching hospitals are Guy's Hospital, King's College Hospital, St. Tomas' Hospital, and the University Hospital Lewisham. There are an additional 17 associated general district hospitals.
The Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine also hold jurisdiction over the Dental Institute and the Nursing and Midwifery facility. The Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery is known as the oldest professional school of nursing in the world.
(Montreal, Quebec, Canada)
The first Medical faculty established in Canada and the first faculty to be established at McGill University was the McGill Faculty of Medicine in 1829. In addition to the traditional MD and PhD tracks, McGill also offers joint programs such as Medicine and Masters of Business Administration, Clinical Medicine and Academic Medicine, and Medicine and Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery.
There are a total of 23 medical departments organized into four schools: the School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, the Ingram School of Nursing, Medicine, and the School of Physical and Occupational Therapy.
Research is organized into more than 30 institutes and centers. Some examples include the Anesthesia Research Unit, the Center for Research on Brain, Language, and Music, the Comparative Medicine and Animal Resource Center, the J.D. MacLean Center for Tropical Diseases, the McGill International TB Center, the Cystic Fibrosis Translational Research Center, and the Steinberg Center for Simulation and Interactive Learning.
The University of Amsterdam is the third oldest institution for higher learning in the Netherlands. There are seven major academic faculties: Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Economics and Business, Science, Law, Medicine, and Dentistry. The Medical discipline at the University of Amsterdam has two educational institutes: Medicine and Medical Informatics. The Amsterdam Medical Center itself is one of eight university medical centers in the Netherlands.
The research institute focuses on seven key areas: Cardiovascular disorders, Epidemiology and Public Health, Stomach/Intestine and Liver Illnesses, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Metabolic Disorders, Neurological and Psychiatric Illnesses, and Oncology.
Alumni include Nobel Laureate Christiaan Eijkman whose work led to the discovery of antineuritic vitamins. Alec Jeffreys, inventor of DNA fingerprinting, and Maurice Arthur Mendes de Leon one of the founding fathers of gynecology in the Netherlands are also affiliated with the Medical discipline at Amsterdam.
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven is Dutch for the Catholic University of Leuven. The University can trace its history back to 1425; it was re-founded in 1834 and was split in 1968 into the Dutch and French speaking campuses.
The Biomedical Science Group encompasses the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, the Doctoral School of Biomedical Sciences, and 14 other major academic departments.
Research networks of the Biomedical Science Group include the Leuven Research Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, the Leuven Cancer Institute, the Medical Imaging Research Center, the Rega Institute for Medical Research, the Stem Cell Institute Leuven, and the Leuven Bioinformatics Interest Group.
Founded 1880, the current academic faculties at VU University Amsterdam are the Behavioral and Movement Sciences, Dentistry, Earth and Life Sciences, Economics and Business Administration, Humanities, Law, Sciences, Social Sciences, Theology, and the VUmc School of Medical Sciences.
Within VU Medical Center (VUmc) is the Institute for Education and Training. This in turn is divided into the three main organizations which provide medical training: the VUmc School of Medical Sciences, the VUmc Amstel Academy, and the VUmc Academy.
The VUmc School of Medical Sciences offers seven academic tracks: Bachelors in Medicine, Masters in Medicine, Masters in Oncology, Masters in Cardiovascular Research, Masters in Epidemiology, Graduate studies in Medicine, or a minor in Medicine.
Research institutes associated with the Medical school include the Amsterdam Institute for Molecules, Medicines, and Systems, the Institute for Cardiovascular Research, the Institute for Lasers, Life, and Bio-photonics, and the Amsterdam Cancer Center.
(Nottingham, United Kingdom)
Originally founded as University College Nottingham in 1881, the University of Nottingham in Nottinghamshire, England maintains an excellent Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. The Faculty is comprised of four main schools: Health Sciences, Life Sciences, Medicine, and Veterinary Medicine and Sciences.
The School of Medicine has 12 academic and research-based divisions including Clinical Neuroscience, the Digestive Disease Center, Primary Care, Rehabilitation and Aging, and Respiratory Medicine.
Clinical and research facilities associated with the school include the Medical Imaging Unit, the Electro-physiology Facilities, the Chick Embryo Culture and Microinjection group, and the Radiation Biology Facility. The main teaching hospital is the Queen's Medical Center.
Sir Peter Mansfield, Professor at the University, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003 for his work and discoveries concerning Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Founded in 1972 the Health Science Center at the University of Texas is recognized as the sixth largest Medical School in the United States. It is a part of the Texas Medical Center which is considered the largest in the world.
The facility is comprised of six schools, four institutes, and the Harris County Psychiatric Center. The six schools include the McGovern Medical School, the University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the UT Health School of Dentistry, the School of Nursing, the School of Biomedical Informatics, and the School of Public Health.
The McGovern Medical School is comprised of 24 departments and over 30 research centers including the Center for Advanced Heart Failure, the Center for Membrane Biology, the Children's Learning Institute, the Dysautonomia Center of Excellence, the Texas Sinus Institute, and the UT Trauma and Grief Center for Youth.
The main teaching hospitals of the School include the Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Center, the Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, and the Harris Health Lyndon B. Johnson Hospital.
The University of Oslo has been recognized as the oldest and largest university in Norway. The current faculties include Theology, Law, Medicine, Humanities, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Social Science, Dentistry, and Education.
The faculty of Medicine contains five main departments, the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, the Institute of Health and Society, the Institute of Clinical Medicine, the Biotechnology Center, and the Center for Molecular Medicine. The main courses available cover Health Management and Health Economics, International Health, Medicine, and Nutrition.
Other Centers of Excellence for research include the Norwegian Center for Mental Disorders Research, the Center for Immune Regulations, and the Center for Cancer Biomedicine. Numerous research centers are dedicated to K.G. Jebsen such as the Breast Cancer Research Center, the Psychosis Research Center, the Inflammation Research Center, and the Center for Influenza Vaccine Research.
The University of Gothenburg is recognized as the third-oldest of the current Swedish universities. The school is comprised of eight faculties, 38 departments, and the Sahlgrenska Academy.
The Academy has a further three units, 22 centers, and six institutes under its jurisdiction. The Institutes are Odontology, Health care sciences, Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Physiology, Medicine, and Clinical Sciences. There are a total of 18 study programs available. The research focus areas for the Academy include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolism, respiratory medicine, rheumatology, hematology and gastrointestinal research. Recently, in the year 2000, Professor Emeritus Arvid Carlsson was awarded the Nobel Prize for his research in the field of neuropharmacology.
Within the Academy, the Institute of Medicine has seven departments: Public Health and Community Medicine, Emergency and Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal Medicine, Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Nutrition, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, and Rheumatology and Inflammation Research.
(Hamilton, Ontario, Canada)
McMaster University is a public research institution located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, which operates six academic faculties: the DeGroote School of Business, Engineering, Health Sciences, Humanities, Social Science, and Science.
The Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine was established in 1966, alongside the School of Nursing and the School of Rehabilitation Science. It is one of two medical schools in Canada to offer an accelerated three year MD program.
The recent enrollment in the school included over 600 undergraduate MD students and over 1,000 medical residents in 59 specialties. The affiliated teaching hospitals include Hamilton General Hospital, McMaster Children's Hospital, Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Centre, all of which are part of Hamilton Health Sciences. Many other community hospitals, like Grand River Hospital, partner with the DeGroote School of Medicine.
There are 30 research institutes including the Population Health Research Institute, the McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, the Thrombosis & Atherosclerosis Research Institute and the Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute.
(St. Louis, Missouri)
Washington University has a total of seven schools, one of which is the School of Medicine which was founded in 1891. The School of Medicine has a total of 20 academic departments and manages the Washington University Physicians, which is the clinical practice of the school.
The faculty members are also affiliated with and serve at the Barnes-Jewish Hospital, the St. Louis Children's Hospital, the Missouri Baptist Medical Center, and the Progress West Hospital. There are a total of 47 clinical sites affiliated with the School of Medicine.
Achievements attributed to the Medical School at Washington University include: the development of screening tests used worldwide to diagnose Alzheimer's disease, the creation of the first positron emission tomography scanner, and performance of the world's first nerve transplant using nerve tissue from a cadaver donor.
Established in 1852, Tufts University manages 10 schools including the Schools of Dental Medicine, Medicine, and Veterinary Medicine. The School of Medicine, founded in 1893, offers educational programs in Medicine, Biomedical Research, Public Health, and Professional studies. There are 19 clinical departments and four basic science departments. Joint MD degrees are available with an MBA, MPH, PhD, or MA.
Additionally, there are 15 centers and institutes for research including the Center for the Study of Drug Development, the Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, the Mother Infant Research Institute, the International Institute for Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Landmine Survivors, and the Center for Global Public Health. The school is well known for specialized research in the areas of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, urology, cholera, public health & health care science, and pediatrics.
As the second oldest Japanese university, Kyoto Graduate School of Medicine offers four major academic programs: Medicine, Medical Science, Public Health, and Human Health Science. The school is well known for research in basic medicine, clinical medicine, and social medicine. Centers and institutes include the radiation Biology Center, the Institute for Virus Research, the Center for iPS Cell research and application, and the Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences.
Other major research institutes include the Institute of Laboratory Animals, the Center for Anatomical Studies, the Center for Genomic Medicine, the Congenital Anomaly Research Center, and the Human Brain Research Center.
There are two recipients of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine associated with Kyoto University: Susumu Tonegawa was recognized in 1987 for the discovery of the genetic mechanism which produces antibody diversity; and Shinya Yamanaka was recently honored in 2012 for work in stem cell research.
- See Kyoto's ranking among "The 50 Best Chemistry Programs in the World Today."
- See Kyoto's ranking among "The 100 Best Universities in the World."
Founded in 1861, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is modeled after the European Polytechnic University which emphasizes practical and laboratory based instruction. The school at large is organized into five schools and one college which contain a total of 32 departments.
Being a largely practical science-based institution, the study of human medicine can be found throughout the various schools and departments. The Department of Biology in particular offers a number of health related majors such as Cancer Biology, Human Genetics, Immunology, and Molecular Medicine and Human Disease. Pharmacology is also a major research area for numerous faculty members.
MIT also manages the Division of Comparative Medicine which focuses on training veterinarians. Established in 1975, there are currently over 175 employed persons in the division who help oversee a daily census of 100,000 animals, comprising over 15 species.